Diabetes is a condition when the glucose level in the blood is too high, body cannot make use of insulin. Body cells are unable to use insulin properly because the pancreas is not able to produce any insulin, or there is not enough insulin that could help glucose enter our body cells. Glucose is the body’s main energy, lack of insulin builds up in the blood that results in high blood sugar.
There are two main types of diabetes,
type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
A third type is also there naming gestational diabetes, which only develops during pregnancy. The other type of diabetes are caused by some kind of defect in pancreas or specific genes.
Diabetes-Role of insulin and glucose
When islet cells of pancreas get destroyed, the body stops producing insulin. Insulin is a hormone which helps to convert glucose into energy.
- Pancreas helps to secrete insulin into the bloodstream.
- Insulin circulates and enables sugar to enter our cells.
- Insulin lowers the sugar level in the bloodstream.
- When the level of blood sugar drops, secretion of insulin from pancreas also lowers.
Glucose is the main source of energy for cells that builds up muscles and other tissues.
- Glucose comes from two sources food and liver.
- Sugar absorbs into the blood stream where it enters cells.
- Liver stores glucose as glycogen.
- To keep the glucose level within a normal range, liver converts stored glycogen into glucose.
Types of Diabetes.
There are two types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2. Type1 diabetes is known as juvenile diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs in children and young adults. Healthy diet, regular activity and four times insulin a day helps in the treatment of diabetes. Those who have no control on their diet also develop diabetes. It can be controlled by healthy eating and by doing regular physical activities. Type 2 diabetes can affect people of any age, whether they are young or an adult aging over 40 years. Young ones who are overweight and lethargic also develop type 2 diabetes.
Causes of diabetes
- Genetic susceptibility– Heredity plays an important role in determining who is going to acquire type1 diabetes. Example: If a child’s any one of the parents or both are having diabetes, the chances really grow for a young child to develop diabetes. The genes gets transferred from biological parent to child. Similarly genes play a major role in susceptibility to type2 diabetes. Getting certain genes helps to know about person’s risk for developing diabetes type2.
- Environmental factors– Some of the environmental factors like food, toxins, viruses plays a major part in the development of type1 diabetes. A virus never causes diabetes, but it is likely possible that that a person might get type1 diabetes after viral infection. Type 1 diabetes can catch us when viruses and infections are more common in winters.
- Obesity and lack of physical activity– People who are generally over weight or gets indulged in less of physical activities develop type 2 diabetes. When there is an imbalance between calorie intake and physical activities, it leads to obesity and causes insulin resistance. A person usually fat faces not only type2 diabetes, but also heart and blood vessel diseases.
Early detection of any problem including diabetes helps in its better treatment and management. There are clinical signs and symptoms that helps in detection of diabetes type. In type2 diabetes, many people do not see any symptoms at all. Even if sign is shown it is usually ignored as part of “ being old” because it occurs over the age of 40 years. There are some common symptoms of both type1 and type 2 diabetes.
Symptoms of diabetes
- If you experience excessive thirst, it is not normal. There might be a possibility that you have diabetes type1. When the thirst is continuous people usually wake up to drink water. This results in urination. Excessive urination is not a good sign. If you are wetting your bed during the night, then immediately consult a doctor. Shortage of hormone regulates the water excretion by the kidneys. This is treated with insulin or medication.
- Weight usually reduces in diabetes as diabetic patient urinates a lot because of rise in their blood sugar level. Rise in sugar results in muscle breakdown causing weight loss.
- Feeling irritated, lethargic, tired and out of energy are the most common symptoms of diabetes. Our energy looses, when lack of insulin affects the ability of body to get glucose from the blood into the cells. People taking medications for diabetes like insulin, goes out of energy because of low blood glucose level. Cause of fatigue basically depends on the rise or fall in blood glucose level.
- Numbness and tingling on hands and feet are the symptoms of diabetes. Glucose should be balanced and diet has to be maintained to control diabetes. Damage to the nerves can cause itching too.
- Having blur vision is one of the symptom of diabetes. The ability to see is affected when high levels of blood sugar pulls fluids from the tissues, including lens of an eye. New blood vessels can be formed in the retina, damaging vessels. If this symptom remains undetected, it may lead to vision loss and blindness of an eye.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can develop really fast over days, weeks or months. Some other symptoms include cramps, infections, having cuts, headaches or feeling dizzy. In this type, there is a possibility of heavy vomiting and deep breathing is a sign that can occur at a later stage. Rise in glucose level stops producing hormones that cause depression. Diabetes makes a person really worried which results in unnecessary mood swings. In this case one should not wait and immediately consult a doctor or visit a hospital for treatment.
In diabetes the blood glucose level can become really low which is called hypoglycaemia. It occurs if one skips his meal or do exercise vigorously. Drinking alcohol empty stomach is one of the major reasons of hypoglycemia. Symptoms are as follows:
Treatment and management of diabetes
One can keep control over the blood sugar levels, by regular checking blood glucose level, blood pressure and cholesterol levels should be monitored regularly, insulin should be balanced depending on your diet intake. Patients suffering from diabetes often need medication. Medication for diabetes is never a substitute to follow a healthy diet, but it gives relief to a patient.
Medication for diabetes
Medication for diabetes lowers and maintain apt blood glucose level. People with type 2 diabetes need medication that includes insulin. Medicines for diabetes cannot really cure diabetes, people suffering from this disease need to take it for lifelong. Be sure to consult your family doctor or pharmacist before taking any medication.
|Medication for diabetes|
These are some of the best medications prescribed for diabetes type 2 patients. The type of medication required depends on individual needs and situations. The medication, once prescribed will work and control diabetes. Be sure that you know how much to take and when- like after or before a meal. All medicines have some side effects, check patient information leaflet about the effects one could get. We cannot prevent type1 diabetes, there are risks if you develop type 2 diabetes. If you are overweight, the cells become less resistant to insulin. Excess mass stored in abdomen enhances the risk of type2 diabetes.
Are you the one- sufferer of diabetes?
According to the CDC (centers for disease control and prevention) report of 2012, 9.3% Americans are suffering from diabetes. If one finds symptoms of diabetes, then he must consult a doctor because diabetes has some bad consequences and affects the health of a person. Proper treatment is a must and lot of medications are prescribed for diabetes. Prevention is better than cure so have healthy diet and do regular exercise to lead a peaceful and happy life.