Diabetes or diabetes mellitus is a lifelong disease in which blood sugar levels are quite high. It is the seventh leading cause of death in America. The food we consume is ultimately converted into glucose and enters the bloodstream and used as a source of energy. The pancreas produces insulin a hormone needed for the metabolism of sugar or glucose as it takes up the sugar from the blood into the cells. This way, sugar rises in the bloodstream and results in a condition called diabetes. It is of three types; type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes. Out of all three, type 2 is the most commonly observed in the people. Obesity, age above 40 years and genetic history are the main reasons behind type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The beta cells of pancreas become resistant to insulin, and there is no movement of glucose into body cells, and it tends to accumulate in the bloodstream. In comparison to type 2 diabetes mellitus, type 1 is observed in 5-10% of the people. In this, the immune system gets confused and starts destroying by producing antibodies and causes insulin resistance. People with diabetes, however, feel excess of thirst, hunger and polyuria like condition.
The first line therapy for diabetes mellitus is exercise, weight control and diet. In type 1 diabetes and case the blood sugar levels remain high despite these measures, then insulin is taken to keep control over the blood sugar levels of the body. Oral Diabetes medications are also prescribed for type 2 diabetes mellitus:
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