Alzheimer’s Disease Information

27 Feb
2017
By Marie

alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer’s disease is a type of dementia that causes several body problems including memory problems, thinking problems and behavioural problems. It is one of the most common causes of dementia. Alzheimer’s disease is named after a doctor who first described the disease and called it. The Doctor’s name was Alois Alzheimer.

The condition is different from normal forgetfulness in which a person forgets about a particular place or person’s name, but if the individual forgets his name and forgets the places well known to him, then this is different from normal forgetfulness.

Symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

The typical symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease may vary from mild to worse. It is critical to know that the patients with Alzheimer’s disease may show different Alzheimer’s symptoms.  The major difficulty that arises with this illness is the memory loss.  The memory loss interferes with the daily life.

The early and later symptoms may vary in the severity. The first signs are:

  • Difficulty in remembering ordinary things
  • Losing things like keys and glasses in the house
  • Quickly being lost in well-known places
  • Confusion of time and location of being
  • Pressure to perform straightforward mathematical calculations

The signs of later stages of Alzheimer’s:

  • Inability to remember the way to brush the teeth or comb hairs
  • Inability to remember their house location
  • Difficult to remember the names of simple things
  • Confusion about time and place
  • Changes in mood and behaviour
  • Poor judgmental qualities etc.

Changes in brain during Alzheimer’s disease:

According to various scientists, there are about 100 million nerve cells in our brain, and they work together to make the brain functioning perfect. The brain nerve cells work to send the signals from the brain to different parts of the body. Alzheimer’s disease is known to interfere with the functioning of the brain nerve cells or the nervous system.

During the ageing process and Alzheimer’s disease, two abnormal structures called plaques and tangles are formed that damage the nerve cells.

  • Plaques are formed up of beta-amyloidal protein
  • Tangles are made up of another protein called tau protein

The destruction and death of the nerve cells with the build up of these proteins causes the Alzheimer’s disease and other symptoms dementia.

Who is at the risk of getting Alzheimer’s disease?

There are a few common risk factors that can initiate the beginning of Alzheimer’s illness and they are:

  1. Age problem: it is one of the biggest risk factors. In the people above the age of 65 years are at a danger of getting AD, and the risk keep on increasing every five years. More than 17% of people above the age of 80 years.
  2. Gender: it is not clearly known the reason behind the cause of the disease in women, still at least twice number of women suffers AD in comparison to men who reaches the age of 65. Women live longer than men, and this fact confuses with the maximum cases of women who suffer from AD. Research is being done on whether oestrogen hormone lack post menopause is the primary reason for the cause of AD in ageing women.
  3. Family history or heredity: Yet another risk factor. People who have close ones or relatives with AD are more likely to get the disease.
  4. Genetic makeup: two genes are related to developing Alzheimer’s disease.

The risk genes, APOE-e gene, APOE-e4 or APOE-e 2or APOE-e3, are known to cause a risk to develop the Alzheimer’s disease, in case, two copies of this gene are inherited.

The deterministic genes are very rare and found only in the few extended families of the world.

Some other risk factors are:

There are a few other causes of memory problem that arises with Alzheimer’s disease:

  1. Medicinal side effect
  2. Depression
  3. Consuming too much alcohol
  4. Blood clot or tumor
  5. Unwholesome Diet
  6. Head injury
  7. Liver problem
  8. Kidney problem etc.

Diagnosis:

No such test can examine the presence of Alzheimer’s disease.  The patient’s condition  is usually diagnosed with the help of a few common tests including the analysis of the symptoms, some neurological tests and a few physical tests such as:

  • Blood pressure check
  • Weight check
  • Urine test
  • Blood test
  • Pulse rate check etc.

Treatments for  Alzheimer’s disease:

There is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease up to this date. The scientist is still working on finding the ways to prevent the damage of nerve cells in the brain. A few drugs are available to control the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, and they are FDA approved also. The Alzheimer’s medication list is as follows:

These Alzheimer drugs are available online also, in case you find difficulty in finding the drugs in your locality. Although Alzheimer’s is an incurable problem, still there are a lot of things that can be done to improve the condition of the patient.  The Alzheimer reviews show that drugs, support and more physical and mental activeness of the patient can improve the status of the patient to several folds.

 

What is Antifungal drugs – Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

27 Feb
2017
By Marie

Antifungal drugs

Fungi are found ubiquitously; they live in the air, in the soil, on plants and in water also. These fungi are both infectious as well as non-infectious to living organisms. Antifungal drugs are those drugs that are used to selectively eliminate fungal pathogens. The anti fungal drugs ensure that the fungal pathogen causes a minimal harm to the organism’s body and system.

Fungi:

Fungi belong to the class of parasitic plants that includes yeast, molds, and mildew, etc. when the fungus enter the body through pathways such as skin or air breath inside; it may cause the infection as it starts to multiply within the tissues and the organs of the body. Fungi can cause various infections of the body including the inflammation of the digestive tract, genitals and other body organs and tissues.

You can find mushrooms everywhere, air, soil, plants, and water and in fact on the human body also. Most of the fungi reproduce by spore formation. Hence, the spores of fungi can be found in the air. These spores reach the lungs when the infected air is inhaled, and the spores travel by the breathed in the air. Although all the spores that enter the body either through the skin or the nasal passage are not able to produce any infection because our body’s immune system starts working in the direction of doing the best to eliminate the pathogens. Our innate immunity fights against the fungal infections because of the presence of these elements:

  • pH levels of the skin and our body
  • Cilia present in the respiratory tract of our body
  • Different types of helpful fatty acids of the skin

Risk factors for getting fungal infections:

Fungal infections mostly hit the below-given people such as:

  • Those people who are on the course of antibiotic
  • Pregnant women
  • People with uncontrolled diabetes
  • Extremely overweight people
  • People with weakened immune system due to HIV or aids
  • People who come in direct contact with the infected person
  • people who touch the contaminated objects

What are the common fungal infections and their causative agents?

The fungal infections are classified into the following categories and various diseases caused by fungi falls into these categories:

  1. Superficial: infection the outermost layer of the skin and hair
  2. Cutaneous: infection of the epidermis of skin as well as in the nails
  3. Subcutaneous: infection in the subcutaneous layer of the muscles and fascia
  4. Systemic: the infection of lungs and different organs
  5. Opportunistic: infections in the patients with weakened immune system

The most common fungal infections are:

  1. Tinea corporis caused by Microsporum sp.  and Trichophyton sp.- it is marked by ringworm lesions on arm, trunk or legs
  2. Candidiases caused by Candida albicans is characterized by the lush growth found in various areas of the body.
  3. Tinea pedis”athlete’s foot” is caused by Microsporum sp. and Trichophyton sp. it is indicated by ringworm of foot
  4. Aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and showed as fungus ball in the tissues.

Diagnosis of fungal infections:

The characteristic appearances of the various infected regions are one of the biggest hints of having a fungal infection. For diagnosis purpose doctors check on the particular part of the body like skin, hair, and nails, etc.

For the diagnosis purpose a few tests are done such as:

  • Wood’s UV lamp test to determine the presence of fungus
  • Potassium hydroxide preparation test, to detect the fungi
  • Culture and sensitivity test
  • Blood sample testing is also done to determine the presence of systemic fungus
  • Urine test also helps fuel
  • The doctor may also recommend testing sputum, bone marrow, or tissues of the infected area to be taken for testing
  • Many other tests are also performed to identify the presence of fungi or to specify the presence of a particular fungus, like:
  1. Microscopic tests
  2. X-rays scanning
  3. Blood antibody test
  4. DNA detection test
  5. Agar Culture test etc.

Antifungal drugs and treatment:

Various antifungal medications are successfully used for the treatment of infections caused by fungi. Here is the few common prescription and over the counter antifungal drugs used to remove fungal infections:

  • Clomitrazole that comes in the tablet and lotion form
  • Amphotericin B is given by intravenous injection
  • Nystatin, a drug very similar in composition to amphotericin b
  • A standard topical antifungal drug known as ketoconazole is also available in oral dosage forms to treat systemic fungal infections in the body
  • Miconazole, a commonly used topical as well as intravenous injection drug
  • Flucytosine, is a synthetic drug used for the treatment of systemic fungal infections
  • Fluconazole is also a fungicide that is popularly recommended by doctors

Ledercort 4 mg (Triamcinolone) Usage Dosage Side effects

27 Feb
2017
By Marie

ledercort-4mg-1

The active ingredient present in the Ledercort 4 mg tablet is Triamcinolone acetonide, an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid that shows anti-neuropathic and neuroprotective effects in vivo. Triamcinolone acetonide is an apoptotic agent and is orally active.

The medicine is a corticosteroid, prescribed for arthritis, blood, skin, kidney, thyroid, eye, intestinal disorders, severe allergies and asthma. Triamcinolone acetonide prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation.

Mechanism of action of the drug:

The administration of Triamcinolone acetonide stops the production of inflammatory mediators. It stops the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and prostaglandins as these plays a key role in producing undesired allergic signs and symptoms. Triamcinolone acetonide possesses an anti-inflammatory mechanism of action.

Dosage

  • The dosage of the drug is solely decided by the physician after assessing your medical condition and various factors such as disease condition, body weight, age, and gender. One cannot fix the dose of Triamcinolone acetonide, as it varies from patient to patient.
  • Ledercort tablet should be taken exactly as recommended by your physician. Swallow the tablet with one glass of water. Try not to crush or chew the Ledercort 4 mg tablet.
  • Always take the medicine as instructed by your pharmacist. Do not consume the Ledercort tablets in a greater amount. The intake of medicine depends on the condition of the patient. So, your doctor will recommend the best therapeutic dose for you. Consult your physician, before consuming the medicine.
  • Always ask your doctor, before stopping the intake of the medicine.

Side effects

In case of any adverse reactions, stop taking the medicine and talk to your physician immediately. You may observe common adverse reactions such as bruising of the skin, increased hair growth, insomnia, headache, stomach upset, vomiting, and irregular menstrual period, etc.

Precautions: a few things to remember

  • Triamcinolone acetonide is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to any excipients in the formulations.
  • Clinical experience with Triamcinolone acetonide in pregnant women is limited, but still it should not be administered during pregnancy unless the therapeutic advantage to the pregnant women is considered to outweigh the potential risk of the foetus.
  • Infants born to mothers, who have received substantial doses of Ledercort should be carefully monitored for hypoadrenalism.
  • It may, like another corticosteroid, pass into breast milk. Therefore, Triamcinolone acetonide should not administer to nursing women unless the therapeutic advantage to the nursing mother is considered to outweigh the potential risk of the infant.

Retino A Cream 0.05% – 20gm

27 Feb
2017
By Marie

Retino A Cream 0.05%

The active ingredient present in Retino-A cream is Tretinoin. This drug is a vitamin A derivative. This drug is used for the effective treatment of acne disease. The medicine is prescribed in the cases of peeling off of the skin and for opening the clogged pores. Tretinoin is the drug belonging to a class of retinoid drugs. Retino-A cream is a prescription drug available only on doctor’s prescription.

Mode of action of the drug: Retino A cream is known to work by exfoliating the skin. It accelerates the skin cycle and also lessens the pigmentation. It improves the complexion of the skin, diminishes the scars, and enhances the appearance of age wrinkles.  The overall quality of the skin is known to improve due to a continuous use of this drug.

Strengths: The following strengths of the drug are present on our site:

  1. Retino A Cream 0.05% – 20gm
  2. Retino A Cream 0.25% – 20gm

Dosage: You must take your doctor’s advice on different modes to apply the cream. The drug tretinoin comes in different dosage forms, but Retino A is cream. You need to wash your hands and area of application thoroughly with water. Apply the enough amount of cream on your affected areas. Then let it remain to absorb. Do not change the schedule or amount of drug dosage.  Generally, for the first few days, you might experience acne outburst, but a continuous use of the drug for weeks can improve the acne condition within 3-4 weeks.

Do not stop the acne medicine without consulting your doctor.

Side effects: If you observe any of the following side effects, then you must inform your doctor. Although these symptoms are very mild still if they cause you any discomfort then you must not neglect these:

  • Redness
  • Itching
  • Nausea
  • Blister formation
  • Rashes
  • Burning sensation
  • Numbness
  • Irritation
  • Scaling of the skin etc.

Precautions: A few things must be kept in mind before and while taking the drug:

  • Keep the medicine out of children’s reach
  • This is a topical medication, do not bring it near mouth or eyes
  • Pregnant women and lactating mothers should ask about the safety of this drug from the doctor
  • Do not share your medicine with anyone else
  • Persons allergic to this medicine should avoid this drug

Introduction of the Retino A Cream 0.25% For Acne Treatment

27 Feb
2017
By Marie

Retino A Cream 0.25% - 20gm

The active ingredient present in Retino-A cream is Tretinoin. This drug is a vitamin A derivative. This drug is used for the effective treatment of acne disease. The medicine is prescribed in the cases of peeling off of the skin and for opening the clogged pores. Tretinoin is the drug belonging to a class of retinoid drugs.  Retino-A cream is a prescription drug available only on doctor’s prescription.

Mode of action of the drug:

Retino A cream is known to work by exfoliating the skin. It accelerates the skin cycle and also lessens the pigmentation. It improves the complexion of the skin, diminishes the scars, and enhances the appearance of age wrinkles.  The overall quality of the skin is known to improve due to a continuous use of this drug.

Strengths:

The following strengths of the drug are present on our site:

  1. Retino A Cream 0.05% – 20gm
  2. Retino A Cream 0.25% – 20gm

Dosage:

You must take your doctor’s advice on different modes to apply the cream. The drug tretinoin comes in different dosage forms, but Retino A is cream. You need to wash your hands and area of application thoroughly with water. Apply the enough amount of cream on your affected areas. Then let it remain to absorb. Do not change the schedule or amount of drug dosage.  Generally, for the first few days, you might experience acne outburst, but a continous use of the drug for weeks can improve the acne condition within 3-4 weeks.

Do not stop the acne medicine without consulting your doctor.

Side effects of Retino-A Cream:

If you observe any of the following side effects, then you must inform your doctor. Although these symptoms are very mild still if they cause you any discomfort then you must not neglect these:

  • Redness
  • Itching
  • Nausea
  • Blister formation
  • Rashes
  • Burning sensation
  • Numbness
  • Irritation
  • Scaling of the skin etc.

Precautions:

A few things must be kept in mind before and while taking the drug:

  • Keep the medicine out of children’s reach
  • This is a topical medication, do not bring it near mouth or eyes
  • Pregnant women and lactating mothers should ask about the safety of this drug from the doctor
  • Do not share your medicine with anyone else
  • Persons allergic to this medicine should avoid this drug

Kenacort Cream-0.1% (5 mg), Triamcinolone 0.1 Cream Tube Information

27 Feb
2017
By Marie

Kenacort Cream-0.1% (5 mg), Triamcinolone 0.1 Cream

The main active ingredient present in Kenacort cream 0.1% (5 mg) tube is Triamcinolone acetonide, a synthetic glucocorticosteroid with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities. It is a topical steroidal base cream prescribed to treat various allergic skin conditions like dryness, redness, itching, allergy, swelling, and inflammation.

Mechanism of action of the drug:

The use of Triamcinolone acetonide stops the production of inflammatory mediators. It stops the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and prostaglandins as these plays a key role in producing undesired allergic signs and symptoms. Triamcinolone 0.1 cream possesses an anti-inflammatory mechanism of action.

Strength

Dosage

Kenacort triamcinolone 0.1 cream is meant to be applied to the inflamed areas of the skin. Apply the cream to the infected area and gently rub into your skin until it has disappeared. Wash the affected area and pat dry, before applying the cream.Always use the medicine as instructed by your physician. Do not use it in a greater amount. The application time of the Kenacort cream is prescribed by the physician only.Do not stop applying it without asking your doctor. Apply it as long as recommended by the physician.

Side effects

In case of any adverse reactions, stop taking the medicine and talk to your physician immediately. You may observe common adverse reactions such as bruising of the skin, increased hair growth, itching, cracking of the skin, skin discoloration, burning, redness, wheezing, breathing difficulties, acne, swelling and pus formation.

Precautions: a few things to remember

  • Triamcinolone acetonide is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to any excipients in the formulations.
  • Do not use it, if you have respiratory infections.
  • Avoid using the medicine if you have viral infections like measles, or chicken pox.
  • Never use the expired cream.
  • Do not give Kenacort cream to anyone else, even if they have the same medical condition as you.
  • Prolonged use of the medicine can cause bruising or discolorations of the skin, therefore, use it as per prescription.
  • Clinical experience with Triamcinolone 0.1 cream  in pregnant women is limited, but still it should not be used during pregnancy unless the therapeutic advantage to the pregnant women is considered to outweigh the potential risk of the foetus.
  • It may, like another corticosteroid, pass into breast milk. Therefore, triamcinolone 0.1 cream  should not be used by the nursing women unless the therapeutic advantage to the nursing mother is considered to outweigh the potential risk of the infant.